We have investigated the effects of three current velocities and three substrate sizes (gravel to cobble) on the spawning behavior of Japanese dace, Tribolodon hakonensis, in spawning-induction and habitat-selection experiments. In the spawning-induction experiment under laboratory conditions the number of females induced to spawn was significantly fewer at low current velocity (ca. 5 cm s−1) than at medium (ca. 30 cm s−1) or high (ca. 50 cm s−1) current velocity. Females spawned independently of substrate size in the experimental tank, and did not bury their eggs in the substrate bed. In the habitat-selection experiment under field conditions, females selected the substrate microhabitat and spawned more frequently at a site with medium substrate size (very coarse gravel; major axis ca. 40 mm) than at sites with small (fine gravel; ca. 8 mm) or large (cobble; ca. 70 mm) substrate size. We conclude that Japanese dace select spawning sites at least partly on the basis of current velocity and substrate size, which affects the survival rate of eggs.